根据ACA(始于2014年),所有人“lawfully present” in the United States must maintain minimum essential health insurance coverage for the whole year or must pay a penalty at the end of the year. This means that every 合法存在 non-citizen in the United States must enroll in qualifying health insurance in the United States or pay the yearly penalty, unless the non-citizen maintains qualifying health insurance through an employer, individual, or government health insurance program. Lawfully present non-citizens include those persons in the United States with lawful permanent resident status (Green Cards); employment visas (E, H, L, R, or TN); and other miscellaneous lawful statuses (TPS, asylum, refugee status, non-immigrant visas, and deferred action/CAT/Withholding of Removal).

合法存在的非公民可以通过注册联邦或州医疗保险交易所,以及在其中一个交易所网站(即www.healthcare.gov)上注册医疗保险,来满足健康保险注册要求。这些网站允许未投保的个人通过私人保险公司找到合格的保险,如果个人’s employer does not provide health insurance coverage and the individual does not otherwise have qualifying health insurance coverage. Also, these websites allow 合法存在 non-citizens to receive tax credits that will help them pay for their health insurance if their income is low.

One exception to the health insurance enrollment requirement for 合法存在 non-citizens is that the law does not treat non-citizens as “lawfully present” under the ACA if the person cannot be reasonably expected to remain 合法存在 in the United States for the entire term of the health insurance plans offered through the exchange websites. For example, H-2B visas allow foreign workers to enter the United States for ten month periods. If the insurance exchanges require enrollment in an insurance plan for longer than the worker can reasonably be expected to remain in the United States, the law does not consider them “lawfully present”根据ACA。这些人不需要参加合格的健康保险。

目前,健康保险交易所尚未完全运作。德克萨斯州没有州保险交易所,而联邦交易所一直很难使用。这意味着我们不知道保险公司是否会为在美国合法居留的临时签证或具有其他临时身份的人员在有限的时间内提供健康保险。在这种不确定性的情况下,我建议每个在美国具有合法移民身份的人都参加保险交易所,并索要保险报价。如果您找不到合理的承保范围,则必须留在美国,记录您的工作,但不要加入健康保险计划。您可以使用这些记录来证明您曾尝试过注册,但不能合理地期望其持续时间长于您希望留在美国的计划。

无证移民注意事项: 无证移民被明确豁免遵守ACA的健康保险要求。但是,法律涵盖了无证个人的美国公民抚养权(配偶和子女)。如果雇主,个人或政府健康保险计划未为无证移民提供其他证明,则无证移民应根据ACA为其受抚养者寻求医疗保险。

See: //www.healthcare.gov/what-do-immigrant-families-need-to-know/